Wednesday, April 6, 2011


  • Thousands of fish tanks were dug up inside the wetland converting the lake into a mere drain. Apart from this the farmers had converted the land use pattern of the lake. 

  • This had a lot of impact in terms of pollution leading to even difficulty in getting drinking water for the local people. The total area of the lake converted to aquaculture ponds accounts for 99.73km2 in 2004in comparison to 29.95km2 in 1967. 

  • The area under agricultural practice in the wetland also increased from 8.40 km2 in 1967 to 16.62km2 in 2004. Sewage inflow from the towns of Eluru, Gudivada and even Vijayawada and industrial effluents, pesticides and fertilizers from the Krishna-Godavari delta region contaminate the lake. 

  • Eleven major industries release about 7.2 million litres of effluents into the lake every day. 


  • Kolleru Lake is the largest freshwater lake and is located in Andhra Pradesh. Kolleru is located between Krishna and Godavari delta and covers an area of 308 km². 

  • The lake serves as a natural flood-balancing reservoir for these two rivers. The lake is fed directly by water from the seasonal Budameru and Tammileru streams, and is connected to the Krishna and Godavari systems by over 68 inflowing drains and channels. 

  • It serves as a habitat for migratory birds. It supports the livelihood of fishermen and riparian population in the area. The lake was notified as a wildlife sanctuary in November 1999 under India's Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, and designated a wetland of international importance in November 2002 under the international Ramsar Convention.



  • The Archaeological Museum at Amaravati houses mainly Buddhist relics. The antiquities found here include collections from Buddhist sites in Andhra Pradesh which belong to the period between 3rd century BC to 12th century AD. 

  • It contains panels, chakras and caskets containing relics, broken railings and sculptures etc. The exhibits are arranged in different galleries. Gallery I exhibits inscribed relief of Buddha from Gummadidurru, Image of Buddha, Terracotta, Coins, Beads, Dome-slabs, Pillar fragments and Miscellaneous Sculptures. 

  • Gallery II exhibits relics of 2nd century BC, inscribed pillars, drum and dome slabs, stone-wheel from Lingarajapalli and Buddha images form Alluru. The museum is open  from 0900 to 1700 on all days except Fridays. 

Tuesday, April 5, 2011


  • The KONDAPALLI FORT has served a number of different purposes at different points in time. Though originally built as a recreational House for the Kings, later it went on to develop into a thriving business centre. Its last known use was as a training base for the British rulers. 

  • Also worth a mention here is the Dargah of Garib sahib, a renowned Persian Saint. It lies at a close distance from the Kondapalli fort. 

  • Thus, lies the formidable hill fort of Kondapalli, a majestic structure commanding the skyline of the Kondapalli hill range. The Archaeological department of Andhra Pradesh has undertaken a number of projects for the renovation and restoration of the fort and the various structures located within it. 


  • A path leads to the great reservoir, which is of immense depth and very cold. A spring surrounds the reservoir. Several bathrooms have stone pipes and cisterns. 

  • There are numerous other water tanks in the fort area which usually go dry during the winter months. Beyond the reservoir is the granary, a massive stone building with high arches and receptacles for grain. Behind this lie the magazines. 

  • An old English barrack and burial ground are also found within the walls. The barrack has eight large rooms apart from a building at the annex. In addition, there are several buildings standing within the fort which are now in ruins. 


  • The Kondapalli fort has been constructed as a majestic rocktower that rises up to three stories. The fort is entered through three massive gates, which lie in close succession at the foot of the hill. The first entrance is called the `Dargah Darwaza`.It is a 12 feet high and fifteen feet high gate that is built out of a single block of granite.

  •  Besides the Dargah darwaza there is another entry gate called the Golconda darwaza located on the other end on the hill. This gate leads to the village of Jagiapett. A stone staircase marks the ascent to the summit, which is fortified with towers and loopholed bastions.

  •  Above, lying at a crest between the two hills at the summit is the Tanisha Mahal or Palace. The palace is still well maintained. There is a cloistered ground storey and arched roofs found herein. It has many chambers on the ground floor and a huge hall on the upper floor. Above that is the great hall. The zenana quarters are approached along a terrace and enclosed by a high wall. 

Monday, April 4, 2011


MIRACLE: TOURISM IN INDIA: UNDAVALLI CAVES ,VIJAYAWADA,ANDHRA PRADESH: "The caves of Undavalli provides the finest example of the rock cut architecture of the Buddhists in India. The most st..."


  • Kondapalli, an industrial town near Vijaywada is best known for the famous monument of the Kondapalli fort. Also referred to as the Kondapalli Quila, this historic fort is located on the main hill range known as Kodapalli in the Krishna district

  • The ruins of the former citadel of the Kondapalli fort stand high over the walled enclosure of the old city, which is now overgrown. The fort was built in 1360 by the rulers of the Reddy Dynasty of Kondavid. Over the years it was the site of a number of wars of conquest and power among different dynasties. The fort was seized by the Bahmani king Humayun the Cruel in 1458 and it was fiercely contested for over two and a half centuries. 

  • After having been under the control of the Bahmani Kingdom for a while, it went on to be occupied by the rulers of the Gajapati district of Orissa followed by Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire, and from then on it fell into the hands of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. In 1687 it surrendered to the emperor Aurangzeb. On 10 March 1766 it was stormed and taken from the Nizam by the British under General Caillaud. 


  • Besides admiring the architectural beauty of the Undavalli caves tourists can explore the nearby area around the Undavalli caves. 

  • When you reach at the top of the cave you get the finest view of the agricultural environment. You can kill time picking alongside the Krishna river. 

  • You can also take the leisure walk along the river and enchant with the local people. You may find children playing in the fields barefooted and their mothers working hard in the fields. 
  • Tourists can even take the boat ride in the river enjoying the surrounding beauty. After that you can even have lunch with the local villagers in the fields. 


  • The caves of Undavalli provides the finest example of the rock cut architecture of the Buddhists in India. The most striking feature of the Undavalli cave is the 5 meter long statue of the Lord Buddha in the reclining position.

  •  Another major attraction of the cave is the sculpture of the Lord Vishnu, which is made out of the single granite block.

  • As the climate is warm in the summers tourists are recommended to wear the light cotton clothes to escape from the summer heat. Do not forget to carry the water bottles along with yourself. You may take help from the tour guide in order to fully explore the area and to know about its historical importance. 

  • In winters the temperature is cool and pleasant. The ideal time to plan out the holiday trip to the Undavalli caves lies between the month of October and February.

Sunday, April 3, 2011


  • Undavalli Caves lies in the Undavalli village in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. From the city of Vijayawada the caves are located at the distance of 8 km and 32 km from Guntur. 

  • These caves are located at the top of the high hills facing the Krishna River.These four stories caves are said to be found in the 7th century. They are associated with the Vishnukundin Kings of AD 420 – 620. 

  • These exotic caves of Undavalli were dedicated to the Anantapadmanabha and Narisimhaswami. According to the historical evidences Madhava Reddy who ruled this region as the subordinate under the Reddies of Kondaveedu gifted the caves to the temple of Anantha Swamy. 

  • It is also believed that these caves were used by the Buddhist monks as the rest houses. Some of the other shrines in the cave are dedicated to the Trimurti, Brahma and Shiva. These ancient Hindu cave temples holds the great importance among the Hindus in India. 


  • Akuna and Madanna Caves Akkana and Madanna, who were ministers in the court of Abdul Hasan Tanashah in the 17th century.and these rock-cut caves were named after them. Though Akkanna and Madanna were not responsible for the carving of these caves, they were actively associated with them as they had their Secretariat on these premises. These two were brothers or cousins or near relatives, (there are many versions about their relationship,) the duo had a glorious career and a tragic end.

  •  These caves are dated as they belong to 6th and 7th centuries AD. The cave, facing east, has a rectangular on octagonal pillars, and lower cave is triple-celled with a pillared. This architecture echoes the richness of the bygone era and the tragic end of great administrators of Kutub Shah, who ruled this part of the country during 1611 and 1672 AD. The structures even recall the Buddhist patterns inherited from Ikshvaku art style.

  •  Historians contend that the caves are assigned variously to the early Pallava, Vishnukundin and Chalukya periods. The upper cave is a rock-cut temple dedicated to the Trinity - Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara. The surroundings are fragrant with sweet-smelling and colourful flowers.Sure, It can be a great time to spend there, enjoying the refreshing breezes of Krishna River, under the cool shade of the neem trees. 

  • A short distance away is another cave that dates back to the 2nd century BC, which hosts the Hindu trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara. These are located at the foot of the hillock, above which, the famous KanakaDurga temple is present, in the city of Vijayawada, Krishna District, Andhrapradesh, INDIA. The caves are sutivated on the way to kanaka durga devi temple.   


  • After independence, the state government constructed a new regulator cum-round bridge that was named after Sri Tanguturi Prakasam, the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Completed in 1957 it helps irrigating over 12 lakh acres. 

  • The reservoir formed by this dam is a tourist attraction and also considered to be an official pilgrim lake - called "Koneru" in Telugu, in honour of the Goddess 'Kanaka Gurga'.

  • During the Hindu festival of Dussera, both sides of this dam are full pilgrims taking a holy bath in the Krishna. The Krishna river has its own festival called 'Pushkaram'. 

  • This happens once in 12 years and is the biggest festival that happens along the river Krishna.

Saturday, April 2, 2011


  • The Prakasam Barrage stretches 1223.5 meter across the Krishna River connecting Guntur and Krishna districts. The barrage serves also as a road bridge and spans over a panoramic lake. 

  • The idea of constructing a barrage across the Krishna river dates back to 1798. But it took some shape in the hands of Captain Buckle and was revised in 1839 and 1841 by Captain Best and Captain Lake(East India Company). 

  • After the endorsement of Major Cotton, the board of Directors of the East India Company approved it on 5th January 1850.The original barrage was started in 1852 and completed in 1855.


  • I will now be writing about yet another great city. Vijayawada, the City of Victory, is a famous city that is situated on the banks of Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh. Known for comprising the largest railway junction of South India, Vijaywada is encircled by the Indrakiladri hills on its west and Budameru River on its north.

  •  Along with being prominent for commerce, the city is also a blossoming tourism destination in Krishna district. In earlier times, it is believed to have been visited by the Chinese traveler, Hieun T`sang. Apart from its mythological significance, Vijaywada has also contributed to the economic and fiscal reasons of the district as well as the state.

  • This third largest city of the state is also known as Bezawada. It also serves as the venue for Krishna Pushkaram, which is an all-India festival celebrated once in twelve years.

  • The spirituality also comes alive in the excavated sites of Buddhist stupas like Amaravati, Gudivada, Ghantasala etc. Amidst rich vegetation and striking temples, the region looks really entrancing. It also has the distinction of having Prakasam Barrage, which is more than 1000 meters long and comprises both rail track and road. Besides temples and stupas, Vijayawada has many historical places that could be of your interest. 

  • Travel to Vijayawada and see for yourself the vibrant people and rich culture of this cultural capital of Andhra Pradesh. 


  • Nagarjunasagar spreads over five districts, Nalgonda, Mahaboobnagar, Kurnool, Prakasam and Guntur, in Andh ra Pradesh state of India. The Krishna river flows through the Reserve over a distance of 130 km. 

  • The multipurpose reservoirs, Srisailam andNagarjunasagar, which are important sources of irrigation and power in the State are located in the Reserve. The reservoirs and temples of Srisailam are major attraction for a number of tourists and pilgrims from all over the country and abroad. 
  • The area is hilly, considerably varying from plains to precipitous cliffs. High hills, deep valleys and gorges are characteristic features. More than 80 per cent of the area is gently rolling to hilly. The hill ranges contain number of plateau of which Amrabad, Srisailam, Peddacheruvu, Sivapuram, Nekkanti are note worthy. 

  • Nagarjunasagar receives rains from South-West monsoon as well as North-East monsoon. The South-West monsoon is active from second half of June to end September. After a dry spell of one month during October, North-East monsoon becomes active.

  • The Wildlife is generally confined to plateaues during monsoon and in valleys during summer. The perennial water sources are generally located in the valleys and the plateaus suffer from acute scarcity for water during summer. 

  • The River Krishna is the oldest river in the country, which has cut its basin almost 200 m deep. Many water falls such as Ethipothala, Pedda Dukudu, Gundam and Chaleswaram are amazingly beautiful.

  • Location of Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve :Reserve is spread over five districts of Andhra Pradesh State: Guntur, Rakasam, Kurnool,Mahboobnagar and Nalgonda. Srisailam is the main gateway tothe reserve. Nearest airport is Hyderabad, 216km (134 miles) from the reserve.

Friday, April 1, 2011


  • The foundation stone of the Dam was laid by the late Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India on 10.12.1955.

  •  The Nandikonda Project was renamed as Nagarjunasagar Project under the inspiring name of the great Buddhist Savant, Acharaya Nagarjuna and construction commenced from the year 1956.

  • Dam construction was completed in the year 1969 and water was first let out partially in the canals during the year 1967. Erection of gates on spillway was completed during the year 1974.